In its Year Five Annual Report, WASHplus has stories to tell, results to share, events to celebrate, and studies that add to the evidence base. WASHplus activities serve as the backdrop for many stories: the Zambian school girl who has access to privacy and menstrual supplies when she needs them, the Malian household that can now build an improved latrine on their rocky soil, the mother in Bangladesh who understands the importance of a feces-free environment, the Nepali home breathing cleaner air as it trials an improved cookstove. And perhaps more compelling than the individual stories are the results the project is beginning to record through endline data collection in Kenya and formative research on school enrollment and in Zambia. Providing water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) infrastructure to schools is having a notable impact on enrollment. Community-led total sanitation (CLTS) may be inoculating communities exposed to cholera. Numbers also tell the story of the project’s impact. Look for a snapshot of those figures throughout the report.
The conclusion of field activities in Uganda and Zambia this year provided opportunities to reflect, celebrate accomplishments through end-of-project (EOP) events, and share lessons learned. Several articles were published this year in peer-reviewed journals and others submitted on topics ranging from consumer preferences and willingness to pay for improved cookstoves to habit formation and costing of handwashing. WASHplus also played a key role in preparing the joint document on WASH and nutrition for publication and distribution.
WASHplus’s focus on integrating WASH into other development initiatives enabled the project to get in on the ground floor on subjects that are gaining traction at USAID and globally, such as WASH and nutrition, neglected tropical diseases, and MHM. This integration focus dovetailed nicely with the project’s mandate to serve a technical leadership role, and project staff had many opportunities this year to share its work and lessons from the field on a global stage, strategize with partners on important advocacy issues, inform policy, and develop guidance in multiple countries. Also toward that end, WASHplus launched its first two learning briefs on small doable actions and WASH and nutrition. This series details the variety of approaches WASHplus uses to improve WASH and household air pollution (HAP) across its portfolio of countries.
And finally, it’s been an exciting year for innovation with pilot projects underway in Ethiopia and Bangladesh focusing on sanitation marketing and sand envelopment. These two efforts will add to WASHplus’s body of knowledge on sanitation innovation and aligns closely with USAID’s global interest on the topic. WASHplus is also documenting its fecal sludge management work in Madagascar to tell the next chapter in that story.
WASHplus’s Julia Rosenbaum co-presented a paper on “Changing WASH Practices in Southwest Bangladesh– One Small Doable Action at a Time” at SACOSAN 6 in Dhaka in January 2016. An abstract for the paper is provide below. Read the paper here.
Abstract: The global USAID WASHplus Project successfully increased access to water, sanitation and hygiene by applying a comprehensive and innovative approach in hard-to-reach areas of southwest Bangladesh. Rather than promoting ideal water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) infrastructure and behavioral improvements, households were encouraged to take ‘small doable actions’ – feasible yet effective improvements – that moved toward the ideal practice. Through taking this approach, the project met and surpassed all project targets before the end of the project period. Project implementers worked with community members to develop age-specific behaviors for safely disposing infant and child feces and also for patching leaky latrines that dump feces back into the environment.
Citation: Rosenbaum, Hussain, Ferdous, and Islam, January 2016, Changing WASH Practices in Southwest Bangladesh– One Small Doable Action at a Time, FHI 360/Bangladesh, WASHplus Project, WaterAid/Bangladesh, SACOSAN 6, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
“When ODF is Not Enough: Using a Small Doable Actions Approach to Complement CLTS
and Get Faeces out of the Environment in Southwest Bangladesh,” Presentation by Julia Rosenbaum, Khairul Islam, Muhammad Faruqe Hussain, and Selina Ferdous, SACOSAN 6, January 2016, Dhaka, Bangladesh. See the presentation slides here.
See the presentation slides here.
This short, educational, animated video from Generation Nutrition explores the links between sanitation and nutrition. The video has been translated into English with funding from the USAID WASHplus project.
WASHplus is working on integrating WASH and Nutrition programming not only by improving water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) in places where we work but also by working towards a fuller integration of WASH, health and nutrition programming. Learn more about WASHplus’s work in WASH-Nutrition Integration.
WASHplus continued pioneering work developing a menu of small doable actions for the safe disposal of infant feces. Working with program partners, the project team further refined doable behaviors for four cohorts of infant and young children, and worked with designers to develop a set of job aids to integrate Essential WASH Actions into Feed the Future nutrition implementing partner work. The materials all work around the theme “Poo’s Final Address,” highlighting that whether the child defecates in the courtyard, potty, or infant wrapper cloth, the poo needs to end up in the family latrine. This poster provides an overview of the WASHplus approach to infant feces disposal along with examples of small doable actions for several age groups.
Download the poster here.
WASHplus’s Monitoring, Evaluation, Research, and Learning Advisor, Orlando Hernandez, co-authored a paper on the usefulness of a handwashing proxy in large household surveys. An abstract of the paper is provided below.
“Handwashing with soap is a cost-effective way of reducing diarrheal disease mortality in children under 5. Tracking this practice among child caretakers is a challenge, as the gold standard method – structured observations – is cumbersome, costly, and conducive to over-performance. The water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) field needs a valid, reliable proxy to track handwashing with soap in large surveys. This proxy is crucial as the new 2015–2030 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) may track hygiene. Using data from the Multiple Indicators Cluster Survey (MICS) and the Demographic Health Survey (DHS) from five countries, we conducted multivariate analyses to explore an association between the presence of functional handwashing stations (HWSs), (together with needed supplies) and the likelihood of lower reports of child diarrheal disease. A limited to moderate association exists in three of the five countries considered characterized by comparable rates of childhood diarrhea: Malawi, Sierra Leone, and Zimbabwe. The relationship was detected when controlling for potential confounding factors (other WASH elements, socio-demographic factors, nutrition practices, and immunization status) and when accounting for cluster effects. The likelihood of reported diarrhea among children under 5 increases when there is no HWS, just a handwashing device with no supplies or only water or only soap. The relationship is moderate in Malawi and less strong in Sierra Leone and Zimbabwe. No relationship was found in Ethiopia and Ghana. Further exploration of the usefulness of this proxy in other African and non-African contexts is warranted.”
Read the paper here.
Citation: Victoria Shelus and Orlando L. Hernandez, The usefulness of a handwashing proxy in large household surveys, Available Online 20 August 2015, DOI: 10.2166/washdev.2015.184
The 2016 ETHOS Conference was held in Kirkland, Washington from Friday January 29th – Sunday January 31st, 2016. The conference aims to expand its reach from previous annual meetings, encouraging participation of Southern partners, international stoves experts, and development specialists with field experience in the transfer of cooking technologies.
At the ETHOS conference this year, WASHplus’s Household Energy Specialist Elisa Derby presented on the results of two consumer research studies on improved cookstoves in Bangladesh and Nepal, and the Cookstove Consumer Research Toolkit which is currently under development.
See the presentation here.